|Back to Introduction||Appendix A||Appendix B||Appendix C|
The developments of the past twenty years pushed Austria-Hungary back from her old historic position. We have only the East. We cannot allow the completion of the Russian ring from Silesia to Dalmatia. A Slav conformation of the Balkan peninsula under Russian material or moral protection would cut our vital arteries.
Austro-Hungarian Foreign Office Memorandum, August 1884
The purpose of this chapter is to offer the collector of Austro-Hungarian military post 1914-18 an introduction to the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy as it existed in 1914. To attempt more would be beyond the writer, and well beyond these pages. At the back of this book will be found some notes on sources. The reader who wants to know more about this Monarchy should read those. Most are easily available in the British Isles and are not difficult to read and understand.
The Monarchy of 1914 dated from 1866, the Battle of Königgrätz, or Sadowa as it is sometimes known. Subsequent to that there had to be some form of compromise if Austria and Hungary were to continue under the Habsburg Monarchy as an entity. Thus with the Ausgleich, ie the Compromise, the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy was born with the Monarch, Franz Josef I, ruling as Emperor in Austria, as the state other than Hungary was known, and as King in Hungary. It was a state that was unique in history!
It had separate Parliaments in each part, and a joint legislature of sorts in Wien consisting of delegates from each Parliament. The central functions of foreign affairs, defence and finance, each with a Minister appointed by the Monarch, worked on behalf of the whole, although it was a fact that no major foreign policy could be effected without the approval of the Hungarian Prime Minister! In effect there were three bureaucracies and a system that caused infinite delay and inactivity. Yet there was no real alternative to it.
A novelist, Robert Musil, gave it the name of Kakania. For it was a world where everything was prefixed by the letter K. It was called Austria-Hungary on paper but spoken of as Austria. However the central institutions were kaiserlich und königlich (k.u.k.) and those of the Austrian part were kaiserlich königlich (k.k.). But those of the Hungarian part were, in German, königlich ungarische (k.u. or k.ung.); and in Hungarian - or to give it its proper name, Magyar (pronounced Módjor), it was Magyar királyi (M.kir.).
The Monarch was called K.u.k. Apostolische Majestät Franz Josef I, and was not only Kaiser von Osterreich und König von Ungarn, but also held the title of king of seven other kingdoms of former times, including Bohemia, Galicia and Lodomeria, Croatia and Slavonia, and Dalmatia. Hence the k.k. for the titles in the Austrian part of the Monarchy. He was also an Archduke, twice a Grand Duke, once a Duke - as well as many other things. The state of Austria-Hungary was in effect a small-scale United Europe held together by the super-structure of the Monarchy. As Frantisek Palacký wrote in 1848, the year of revolutions, 'If there were no Austria, it would be necessary to create one!'. And its foreign policy, from which came the war of 1914, was based on principles that stem from the quotation at the head of this chapter.
To help the reader follow the happenings that affected Austria-Hungary in the years 1866 to 1914, Appendix A to this chapter has been designed. By 1914 the Monarchy was allied to the German Empire and the Kingdom of Italy in the Triple Alliance; and also to the Kingdom of Romania.
In fact both Italy and Romania held hopes of detaching parts of the Monarchy to themselves. Italy sought the Südtirol where many Italian speaking people had their homes, and Romania wanted Transylvania where many Romanian speaking people lived. This is no place to consider these claims but it is worth noting that both areas were allotted to the countries concerned after 1918. Reality made Germany and Austria-Hungary come to see that Italy and Romania were not to be relied on as allies. In the event both countries declared themselves to be neutral as war broke out.
Now it is time to turn to that war. In 1909, following the annexation of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Austria [from now on the Monarchy will be referred to thus] and Germany [that is, the German Empire] held military staff talks. Although no firm plans were made, it was agreed in the event of the Russian Empire attacking Austria, and subject to an enemy not making the plans of one of the allies inoperable at the time, that Germany would attack Russia from East Prussia whilst at the same time Austria would attack her from Galicia. This agreement still held in 1914 and was the basis for Austrian war planning.
However the Balkans, Serbia in particular, were a factor and with them in mind the Austrian General Staff envisaged three groupings of their forces:
Two situations were foreseen. The first called Fall-B, planned for Minimal-Gruppe Balkan plus B-Staffel to take the offensive against Serbia, whilst A-Staffel remained mostly on the defensive until B-Staffel joined it after success in the Balkans. The second, Fall-R, saw A-Staffel plus B-Staffel take the offensive in Galicia whilst Minimal-Gruppe Balkan remained on the defensive. All this presupposed of course that events would be clear enough to show just who was to be fought and when! In fact it was quite impossible to see just what Russia and the other Powers would do before the die against Serbia was cast.
The following extract from the diary of GO Freiherr Conrad von Hötzendorf, Chief of the Austrian General Staff, for 26 July 1914 shows the complexities of the situation and should be read in conjunction with Appendix B to this chapter, where the start of the war and the events that followed it are set out in timetable form. At Appendix C to this chapter are sketch maps of the fronts where the main Austrian actions took place.
I (Conrad) then spoke with Count Berchtold (Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary) alone. He said "We should like to present the declaration of war as soon as possible so that various influences may cease to operate. When do you want the declaration of war against Serbia?"
I replied "Only when we have progressed far enough with mobilisation for operations to begin. About 12 August."
He said "The diplomatic situation will not hold that long. Nor do we know that there will not be fighting on the frontier."
I said that in that case matters would take their own course, and suggested that he postpone a declaration of war for the present but send for me if for diplomatic reasons delay should no longer seem advisable.
I continued by saying that we could surely wait for a few days - that it was not all that urgent. I advised him to hold back Montenegro as long as possible, and not to 'stir up' Bulgaria against Romania, as we had to humour Romania. But, I said, the most important thing was to find out about Russia's attitude. It would be advisable to have done this by 4, or at latest, 5 August.
Count Berchtold said that would be impossible.
Summing up I said that the fact was that if it was clear by this date (4 or 5 August) that Russia was 'going for' us, we should proceed against Russia from the start, but otherwise against Serbia. If Russia moved late however, we should be weaker in the northern theatre of operations.
In fact Austria declared war on Serbia on 28 July. Russia ordered general mobilisation on 30 July. And GO Conrad decided on 1st August that B-Staffel, which had been mobilised for the Balkan front on 25 July, should go to that front, wait there for ten days and then go to Galicia about 18 August to join A-Staffel, which by then should have completed its deployment. Thus B-Staffel would then arrive in Galicia at about the same time as it would have done if it had been ordered there direct. So the war began with considerable indecision and indeed muddle on the Austrian side.
It is perhaps fitting to add a footnote to this chapter in which the end of the Army of Austria-Hungary is described in somewhat fuller terms than those used in Appendix B to this chapter.
The end came suddenly on the fronts although the signs of internal disruption were clear. In a way the cessation of fighting on the Russian front and the resulting appearance of some 517,000 returning prisoners of war, the Heimkehrer, was the beginning of the end. The flood of men who may have been disaffected whilst in Russian hands led to the setting up in late March 1918 of the Heimkehrerkordon, with camps in Galicia, the Bukowina and Siebenburgen. This involved over five divisions under the command of 7 Armee, controlled overall by GO Ritter von Roth. All returned prisoners of war were detained for up to eight weeks apiece in Heimkehrerlagern for the purposes of 'moral quarantine'. Sadly by no means all the men in Russian hands came home at this time: the story of the others is not for these pages.
By February/March 1918 hunger was becoming a factor in military thinking and effectiveness. Despite the widespread use of troops on the land from 1915 onwards, more often than not in Hungary, and even allowing for the Romanian and Ukrainian harvests of the last year of the war, starvation was a major factor by the Spring of 1918 on the Italian front and in Austria. Desertion spread and the so-called 'grünen Kaders' who hid in woods and often formed armed 'Räuberbanden' had to be hunted or at least guarded against. Nevertheless the Army as a whole retained its sense of purpose and loyalty to the end.
With the Allied attack of mid-September 1918 in Macedonia that brought about the collapse of the Bulgarian army, and the resulting advance northwards through Serbia towards Hungary, a sense of real menace became apparent. Kaiser Karl declared that it was better to lose Venetia rather than one millimetre of Hungarian territory, and urgent steps were taken to form a front in south Hungary. On 22 October 1918, Erzherzog Josef had an audience of the Monarch and was appointed Commander-in-Chief Balkan Front. It was decided to move every available Hungarian formation from other fronts to defend their homeland. These moves were set in train but few were complete, or even begun, before the final act.
On 23 October 1918 Croats of a MaKomp IR79 mutinied at Fiume and fought with Honvéd units there. On the same day Kaiser Karl sought the help of the Pope in stopping the coming attack on the Italian front, to save lives. To no avail, for on 24 October the Allies attacked across the River Piave and by 27 October had broken through the Austrian lines. Meanwhile, at Odessa, troops of 2KD, 54SchD and 145IBrig, which had been preparing to leave by sea, mutinied and imprisoned senior officers.
The official history said that by 31 October 'Das Reich lag in Trümmern. Die Armee u. Flotte war durch die Revolution in Stücke geschlagen'. (The realm lay in ruins. The Army and the Fleet was broken in pieces by the revolution.) And so the war ended, as did Austria-Hungary.
On 6 November demobilisation of the Army began. The Südtirol was now an occupied land, its people having fought to the end. They now descended from the mountains to pick up the threads of their lives as best they could. The rest tried to go home. Sixty four trains left from Innsbruck, Laibach, Villach and Klagenfurt each day taking the peoples of the former Habsburg Empire home - to new States. And in the case of the Hungarians, to more fighting against the Romanians. 140,000 men were moved thus each day, marching from their last positions to the railheads. The last headquarters closed on 17 November.
Meanwhile with the armistice on the Western front, men of the Habsburg Army turned their faces towards home, as they did in Poland, Russia and Turkey, and in the Allied prisoner-of-war camps in the West, Italy and the Levant. As has already been said, to very different homes, in fledgling, independent, new states. The Army of the Habsburgs ceased to exist.
It had been a polyglot army, in which the flame of a fierce Hungarian nationalism did not help improve efficiency. It was 47% Slav - of which some 15% were Czechs, 9% Poles, 8% Ruthenians and 7% Serbo-Croats. 29% of the whole were German-speaking; 18% were Hungarians, 5% Romanians and 1% Italians. Nevertheless:
The truth is that considering its inherent difficulties and virtually insoluble problems, the Austro-Hungarian Army kept the field with amazing stubbornness, great courage and no little skill until the very end of the war.
'White Heat - The New Warfare, 1914-18', by John Terraine.
|Back to Top||Back to Introduction||Appendix B||Appendix C|
This list is by no means complete but is designed to give the postal historian an introduction to the events that affected Austro-Hungarian history during the years from 1866 to 1914. Flesh will be added to this list by referring to the note on sources at the back of the book. The word 'Austria' is used here to denote Austria-Hungary for the sake of brevity. No dates other than years are given.
|1866||Prussia defeats Austria at Königgrätz (Sadowa), and at the subsequent Treaty of Prague Austria forfeited her position in German affairs. Despite victories at Lissa and Custozza, Austria ceded Venezia to Italy.|
|1867||The Compromise (Ausgleich) whereby the Dual Monarchy was agreed.|
|1870||Franco-Prussian war. Austria not involved.|
|1871||Wilhelm I of Prussia proclaimed Emperor of Germany at Versailles|
|1873||The Emperors of Germany, Russia and Austria agree to a Three Emperors League.|
|1875||Rising in Bosnia-Herzegovina against Turkish rule.|
|1876||Turks massacre Bulgarians. Serbia and Montenegro declare war on Turkey.|
|1877||Russia and Austria agree that no large state be made in the Balkans. Russia declares war on Turkey, Austria remaining neutral. Serbia and Romania join on Russia's side.|
|1878||Turkey asks for an armistice which Russia grants. Secret Anglo-Turkish agreement to stop Russian advance in Asia Minor. Anglo-Austrian agreement on Bulgaria. Congress of Berlin and Austria given mandate to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina. This was done but resistance was not overcome until the next year.|
|1879||The Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria signed. It remained effective until 1918.|
|1881||The Three Emperors League signed. Austria concludes a secret treaty with Serbia.|
|1882||Italy joined the Dual Alliance, making it the Triple Alliance, which lasted until 1915 when Italy declared war on Austria.|
|1883||Secret Austrian alliance with Romania, which lasted until Romanians declared war on Austria in 1916.|
|1884||Renewal of the Three Emperors Alliance.|
|1885||Serbia invaded Bulgaria but the Bulgarians fought back and beat the Serbs, being forced to withdraw to their own territory after Austrian diplomatic action.|
|1887||Secret treaty between Germany and Russia.|
|1888||Wilhelm II becomes Emperor of Germany.|
|1890||Bismarck dismissed by Wilhelm II.|
|1891||Renewal of the Three Emperors Alliance.|
|1895||Massacre of Armenians in Constantinople.|
|1896||Cretans revolt against Turkey. Austrians learn of the secret Russo-German Reinsurance Treaty of 1887.|
|1898||Assassination of the Empress Elizabeth of Austria.|
|1902||Increasing troubles in Macedonia involving Bulgars, Serbs and Greeks.|
|1903||The Emperors of Austria and Russia discuss a programme for quieting Macedonia and formulated the Mürzsteg Agreement. King Alexander I and Queen Draga of Serbia murdered.|
|1904||Russo-Japanese war begins. Anti-Austrian ministry formed in Serbia|
|1905||End of Russo-Japanese war with Japan victorious. Crete revolts against Turkish rule. Wilhelm II visits Tangier and triggers Moroccan crisis.|
|1906||Algeciras agreement giving France and Spain control of Morocco.|
|1908||'Young Turks' stage revolt in Macedonia. Austria annexes Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bulgaria declared itself independent.|
|1909||War with Serbia threatens but is prevented by diplomatic intervention of the major European powers and Serbia yielded to Austria, promising to live on good-neighbourly terms with Austria.|
|1911||Italy declares war on Turkey and annexes Tripoli and Cyrenaica.|
|1912||First Balkan War. Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro against Turkey. Peace Conference at London arrived at settlement creating autonomous state of Albania.|
|1913||Serbian troops invade Albania but withdraw when Austria and other powers protest. King George of Greece murdered. Bulgarians renew war against Turkey, but later Turkey accepts recommendations of the major powers for peace. Second Balkan War, Bulgaria attacking Serbia and Greece. Russia declared war on Bulgaria and Turkey re-entered the conflict. Late in the year, and early in the next, Balkan peace treaties were agreed to.|
|1914||In January Romanian general elections returned the Russophile Liberal Party.|
It will have been noticed that the above list does not refer to events within Austria-Hungary. Readers are urged to read some of the sources in the note at the back of this book in order to get some feel for life inside the Dual Monarchy in these years.
|Back to Top||Back to Introduction||Appendix A||Appendix C|
The following notes are only intended to be a guide for the collector of Austro-Hungarian military mail. The word 'Austria' is used to denote Austria-Hungary. See Appendix C for maps.
|28 Jun||Sarajevo: the murder of the heir to the Habsburg Monarchy, Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife.|
|23 Jul||Austria presents Serbia with an ultimatum.|
|25 Jul||Serbia rejects the ultimatum and Austria breaks off diplomatic relations, mobilising Minimal-Gruppe Balkan and B-Staffel.|
|28 Jul||Austria declares war on Serbia and bombards Belgrade on the following day.|
|30 Jul||Russia declares general mobilisation.|
|31 Jul||Austria orders mobilisation of A-Staffel to begin on 4 Aug.|
|1 Aug||Germany declares war on Russia.|
|3 Aug||Germany declares war on France, and Italy declares itself neutral.|
|4 Aug||Mobilisation of A-Staffel begins and Romania declares itself neutral.|
|6 Aug||Austria declares war on Russia.|
|12 Aug||France and Great Britain declare war on Austria.|
|15 Aug||Austria invades Serbia, but is defeated by 30 Aug.|
|19 Aug||B-Staffel begins move to Galicia, arriving there between 23 Aug and 2 Sep, having left two divisions in Balkans.|
|25 Aug||Germans defeat Russians in East Prussia, Battle of Tannenberg, 25-30 Aug. On 25 Aug Austria advanced in Galicia and into Russian Poland, but had to withdraw to east of Krakau by 11 Sep. In these few weeks Austria lost 400,000 men of which 100,000 were prisoners. And the Russians lost 250,000 of which 40,000 were prisoners. Lemberg was captured on 3 Sep, Jaroslav was in Russian hands and Przemysl was besieged. The Bukowina was overrun.|
|22 Sep||To protect Silesia, a new German army was formed north of Krakau.|
|24 Sep||Russians withdrew east of R. Vistula. On 28 Sep the Germans advanced into Poland north of Czestochowa, and the Austrians advanced in Galicia. Their advance was halted by 9 Oct with Jaroslav retaken and Przemysl relieved.|
|12 Oct||Germans just south of Warsaw. Austrians defeated at Ivangorod.|
|18 Oct||Russians counter-attacked in Galicia and the Austrians withdrew to east of Krakau. Przemysl besieged again.|
|1 Nov||Turkey entered the war on the side of the Central Powers. Austria invaded Serbia a second time.|
|9 Nov||Austrian 2 Army moved from the Carpathians to north of Czechostowa to fill the gap caused by the move of the German 9 Army north to attack Lódz on 11 Nov. At the same time the Austrians attempted to clear the Carpathian passes and relieve Przemysl, without success. Lódz was captured by the Germans on 6 Dec, and on that day the Austrians were driven out of Serbia for the second time.|
|Jan||With a new German army on its right, Südarmee, the Austrian 3rd Army attacked in the Carpathians in an attempt to relieve Przemysl but the weather defeated their efforts.|
|6 Feb||The Germans cleared the Russians out of East Prussia in the Winter Battle of Masuria.|
|mid-Feb||Austrian 2 Army, returned to the Carpathians, attacked there, without success. These operations of Jan and Feb cost the Austrians some 800,000 men of their fighting strength, mostly sick.|
|22 Mar||Surrender of Przemysl with 120,000 men. Russian attacks in the Carpathians threatened the Hungarian plains.|
|6 Apr||A German corps, the Beskidenkorps, relieved the Austrians east of Krakau and the Carpathian offensive came to a halt.|
|2 May||The German 11 Army, including eight divisions from the Western Front, and the Austrian 3 Army, attacked east of Krakau. The Russians retreated throughout Galicia and from the Carpathians but retained the Bukowina.|
|23 May||Italy declared war on the Austrians. The Italian front had to be reinforced from the Russian and Serbian theatres.|
|22 Jun||Lemberg retaken. The Germans and Austrians now attacked north into Poland from Galicia and the Germans attacked south from Prussia.|
|23 Jun||Italians attacked for the first time on the R. Isonzo. This was the first of the battles of the Isonzo, and lasted until 7 Jul.|
|31 Jun||Lublin and Cholm captured.|
|4 Aug||Fall of Warsaw.|
|10 Aug||End of the 2nd Battle of Isonzo.|
|31 Aug||By the end of Aug the Russians had lost Brest-Litowsk and were still retreating. At the beginning of Sep, one German division had been moved to the Serbian-Romanian border. The 1915 advances drove the Russians back to a line that left them Riga on the Baltic, lost them Vilna and the Pripet Marshes, and virtually cost them Poland. The Austrians took Lutsk but had to be reinforced by two German divisions. The Russians remained in eastern Galicia east of the R. Sereth, and also in eastern Bukowina.|
|2 Oct||The Russian retreat ended.|
|5 Oct||Allied landing at Salonika in Macedonia, Greece. On 6 Sep, Bulgaria signed a military convention with the Central Powers and began to mobilise. By the end of Sep a German army was opposite Belgrade.|
|7 Oct||Austrian and German forces invaded Serbia from Hungary and Bosnia.|
|12 Oct||Bulgaria declared war on Serbia, invaded that country and contained the Allies on the Greek frontier.|
|18 Oct||3rd Battle of Isonzo. Ended 4 Nov.|
|10 Nov||4th Battle of Isonzo. Ended 14 Dec.|
|28 Nov||Serbia conquered. Remnants of Serbian forces evacuated to Corfu by the Allies. Austrians subdued Montenegro and advanced into central Albania.|
|11 Mar||5th Battle of Isonzo, ended 16 Mar.|
|14 May||The Austrians, after reinforcing their front in the Süd-tirol from Galicia, attacked the Italians and attempted to break out of the mountains into the plain of Lombardy. By 2 Jun the Italians had held this attack and eventually recaptured about half of the ground they had lost to it.|
|4 Jun||The Russians attacked the Austrians and advanced 40 miles opposite Lutsk, and in the south Bukowina reached the Carpathians and the Romanian border. In the area north of Lutsk, the Germans held the attacks and the front by Tarnopol in Galicia held firm. In three weeks the Russians took 200,000 prisoners and, by persisting in their attacks, had taken 450,000 in all by the end of Sep, mostly Austrians. However, in the period Jun to Sep, the Russian army lost one million men, and never recovered. The Central Powers had to bring 15 divisions from France and even a Turkish corps was engaged in Galicia.|
|4 Aug||Following the Austrian offensive in the Süd-tirol and their subsequent holding of that, the Italians concentrated their efforts once more on the Isonzo. The 6th Battle of the Isonzo was a more serious affair than its predecessors and lasted from 4-16 Aug. It caused the Austrians to reinforce that front at the expense of the Süd-tirol and Balkan fronts. The town of Görz on the Isonzo was captured by the Italians on 8 Aug. (Although a German Alpine Division was sent to the Italian front in Jun 15, Italy and Germany were not at war until Aug 16.)|
|27 Aug||Romania declared war on Austria-Hungary and advanced 50 miles into Transylvania. An army of Germans, Bulgars and Turks attacked from Bulgaria and on 26 Sep took Turkturkai, moving thence towards the mouth of the Danube. The Russians failed to assist the Romanians at this stage. Meanwhile a German and Austrian army had been formed in Transylvania and forced the Romanians to abandon their gains. Constanza on the Black Sea fell on 23 Oct. On 11 Nov the Germans and Austrians broke through the Carpathians into Wallachia.|
|21 Nov||The Emperor King Franz Josef died in Wien and was succeeded by Archduke Karl, who had commanded the forces in Transylvania.|
|5 Dec||The Central Powers announced the formation of an independent Polish state.|
|6 Dec||Fall of Bucharest. Meanwhile on the Italian front, the 7th (14-17 Sep), 8th (9-12 Oct), and 9th (31 Oct - 4 Nov) Battles of the Isonzo had been fought, causing the Austrians to reinforce this front once more.|
|12 Mar||The Russian Revolution began.|
|15 Mar||Abdication of the Tsar and assumption of power by the Provisional Government.|
|Apr||Lenin returned to Russia, travelling from Switzerland through Germany, Sweden and Finland.|
|12 May||10th Battle of Isonzo, ended 5 Jun.|
|1 Jul||The Russians attacked for the last time but were repulsed and driven out of Galicia.|
|18 Aug||The Italians attacked for the last time in the 11th Battle of the Isonzo, using 52 divisions. The Austrians were pushed back six miles north of Görz, but the Italians did not follow up, and the battle ended 1 Sep with the Austrians badly shaken but the Italians having lost 165,000 men.|
|3 Sep||Riga taken by the Germans.|
|24 Oct||12th Battle of the Isonzo, known as Caporetto, when a German Army including two Austrian corps, and the Austrian 1 and 2 Isonzo Armies attacked and within three days broke through the Italian defences and advanced to the R. Piave. The Italians lost some 293,000 men as prisoners, and had some 400,000 desert. They also lost much equipment and had to be reinforced by British and French forces from the Western Front.|
|7 Nov||Italian retreat ended. In Russia, the 'October' Revolution saw the Bolsheviks seize power.|
|17 Dec||Armistice between the Central Powers and Russia.|
|3 Mar||Peace Treaty of Brest-Litowsk. At the same time a separate peace was made with the Ukraine which was then purged of Bolsheviks and the Central Powers occupied it as far east as Odessa and the Sea of Azov for the harvest it could supply. In addition, the Central Powers forced Romania to agree to a peace treaty that was highly favourable to them.|
|15 Jun||The last Austrian attacks of the war, at the Tonale Pass near the Swiss border, at Asiago and on the Piave. All failed with the loss of 150,000 men.|
|15 Sep||Allied attack on Bulgaria, which ended with the surrender of that country on 30 Sep and led the Central Powers to begin moving troops from Romania, the Ukraine and Italy to form a new front for the defence of Serbia and ultimately, Hungary.|
|24 Oct||Allied attack on the Piave. By 27 Oct the Austrian lines were broken and they were routed on this front.|
|30 Oct||Turkish armistice. By early Nov, the Allies had entered Trient and Udine, and were landing at Triest. They had taken 500,000 prisoners. On 28 Oct the Czechoslovak republic had been proclaimed in Prag and on 29 Oct the Yugoslav republic was proclaimed in Zagreb. On 30 Oct the state of 'German-Austria' - a state without boundaries or definition - was proclaimed, and in the first days of Nov Hungary became an independent nation.|
|3 Nov||Austrian armistice. In France an Austrian corps with four divisions remained in action.|
|9 Nov||Romania re-entered the war.|
|11 Nov||Armistice on the Western Front|
|13 Nov||Hungarian armistice with the French. However the Romanians continued to advance into Hungary - which is another story.|
|Back to Top||Back to Introduction||Appendix A||Appendix B|
[Scale for the map above]
|Back to Top||Back to Introduction||Appendix A||Appendix B||Appendix C|
Last updated 25 Feb 2002