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|Appendix A: KUK MILITÄTERRITORIAL(KORPS)BEZIRKE: their responsibilities and locations|
|Appendix B: KUK ERGÄNZUNGSBEZIRKE, their responsibilities and locations.|
|Appendix C: THE ORGANIZATION OF THE KK LANDWEHR|
|Appendix D: THE ORGANISATION OF THE KU LANDWEHR (M.KIR.HONVÉDSÉG)|
|Appendix E: KK LANDSTURMBEZIRKSKOMMANDOS|
|Appendix F: KU LANDSTURMBEZIRKSKOMMANDOS (M.KIR. NÉPFOLKELÉS KERULET PARANCSNOKSÁG)|
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Although this explanation is concerned with the war years of 1914-18, it is necessary to understand the peacetime organisation of this Army in order to see how it was organised and commanded in war. Thus some details are given of the pre-war organs, most of which continued to function after war had begun with, perhaps, slightly changed functions and titles.
The Supreme Commander (Oberster Kriegsherr) was the Monarch, served by a Military Chancellery (Militärkanzlei Seiner Majestät des Kaisers und Königs) headed by a senior general. In 1914, because of his age, Franz Josef delegated the Commander-in-Chief's post to Erzherzog Friedrich who held it until Erzherzog-Thronfolger Karl succeeded to the throne in November 1916. Command was exercised from the General Headquarters (AOK=Armee-oberkommando), located initially at Wien. On 18th August 1914 it moved to Przemysl and then to Neusandez on 13th September before moving to Teschen on 11th November 1914. It remained there until 4th April 1917 and moved to Voslau until 15th February 1917, when it made its final move to Baden bei Wien. It was there when the war ended.
Prior to the war the Chief of the General Staff (Generalstabschef), GO Freiherr Conrad von Hötzendorf, planned and carried out the Monarch's policies for the Army in conjunction with the Monarch's Militärkanzlei and the other bodies that provided for and ran the day-to-day functions of that Service. Upon mobilisation, GO Conrad moved to AOK, where he became the C-in-C's right hand man.
In war the field army was organised in Armies. Plans and cadres for six Army Headquarters were in existence and these headquarters were mobilised as Serials 2, 4, 5, 13 and 15 of Appendix A to this chapter. The commanders of these Armies were drawn from the six senior of the Armeeinspektoren, who had the responsibility in peace of checking on the state of training morale and discipline of elements of the army. Five of the Army Commanders came from inspectors stationed in Wien, the sixth being the general commanding all troops in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Dalmatia. This officer was also head of the government of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which had been annexed in 1908 and was, peculiarly, the responsibility of the k.u.k. Minister of Finance. In war he became Commander of 6 Armee and also Commander of the Bosnia-Herzegovina, Dalmatia Command, which included 5 Armee, and initially 2 Armee - subject to some control by AOK.
The highest command level that operated in peacetime was that of corps district (Militär-territorial(Korps)bezirk); see Appendix A to this chapter. These covered the entire area of the Monarchy and within Austria commanded all troops within their boundaries. In Hungary they commanded only the k.u.k. formations and units in their areas, the Honvéd being under command of the Hungarian Ministry of Defence in Budapest. Upon the declaration of mobilisation these headquarters each mobilised a Corps Headquarters which took the field, whilst the functions of district command continued to be exercised in war by a Militärkommando from the same location as in peace.
Each Militärterritorial(Korps)bezirk was also responsible in peace for some of the 112 k.u.k. Ergänzungsbezirke, introduced in Chapter 2, producing men for k.u.k. units. 60 of these complementing districts were in Austria, 3 being in the Tirol. 48 were in Hungary and 4 in Bosnia-Herzegovina. 102 were responsible for men for the 102 k.u.k. Infanterieregimenter; the three in the Tirol found men for the KJR and the four in Bosnia-Herzegovina dealt with the four bhIR. A check of these figures will show that only 109 districts have been accounted for! The remaining three (Triest, Sebenico and Fiume) found men for the k.u.k. Kriegsmarine and operated under naval control. See Appendix B to this chapter.
Reference has been made in earlier chapters to the three Ministries for War/Defence that were responsible to the Monarch and to the Austrian and Hungarian Parliaments for elements of the armed forces. In Wien, with the k.u.k. Kriegsminister at its head, was the k.u.k. Kriegsministerium with responsibility for both the Army (Heer) and the Navy (Kriegs-marine). Also in Wien was the k.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigung under its own k.k. Minister with its associated k.k. Landwehroberkommando. This latter was responsible for the training and fitness for war of the k.k. Landwehr through the k.k. Landwehrterritorialbezirke. In Budapest was the k.u. Landesverteidigungsministerium (M.kir. honvéd ministerium) and its k.u. Landwehroberkommando (M.kir. honvéd föparancsnokság). The minister in each case was a senior general, and so of course were the two Landwehr/Honvéd commanders. The ministries were responsible, respectively, for the administration, manning and financing of the three elements of the armed forces, k.u.k., k.k. and k.u. They did this in conjunction with the Militärkanzlei, the k.u.k. Militärterritorial(Korps)bezirke and the Landwehrober-kommandos, but it must be noted that command of the Honvéd was vested in the Hungarian ministry on behalf of the Monarch, at least until war began.
Appendix C to this chapter gives details of the nine k.k. Landwehrterritorialbezirke and their associated k.k. Landwehr (or in the Tirol, Landesschützen) Ergänzungsbezirke that found the men. Appendix D to this chapter gives details of the six k.u. Landwehrdistrikte (Honvéd kerület) and of the Honvéd units raised by each. The districts mentioned in Appendices C and D continued in being during the war.
At Appendices E and F to this chapter will be found the comparable data for the k.k. and k.u. Landsturm (M.kir. Népfölkelés). In Austria the Landsturm, under the overall direction of the Ministry of Defence, was administered through 41 k.k. Landsturmbezirkskommandos. Their geographical areas did not coincide with the areas from which the Landwehr Infanterieregimenter were raised. They planned to form only infantry regiments and battalions for war; 17 k.k. LstIR were planned for and 19 were raised, together with a number of LstIBaone. These were organised in k.k. LstIBrig and indeed two LstID were formed in August 1914: 95LstID and 106LstID. The former did not last but 106LstID saw service on both the Russian and Italian fronts before serving on the Western front in France at the end of the war.
The Hungarian Landsturm was organised in a different way. The infantry regiments were born out of the Lst cadre kept in each HIR depot, and bore the same number as their parent HIR. Also independent battalions were formed that bore the number of the parent k.u. LstKmdo and HIR. Thus k.u. LstIBaon1/5 was the first k.u. Landsturm infantry battalion of independent status formed from the Szeged, No5, area; reference to Appendix D to this chapter will show the HIR numbers and areas. Unlike the k.k. Landsturm, the M.kir. Népfölkelés raised cavalry units. These were the k.u. LstHusD (M.kir. huszár osztályok) which were raised from the Honvéd Huszár Regimenter. Each HHR had at its depot a record office that maintained the names of those eligible to serve in its associated k.u. LstHusD and at mobilisation such units were formed from an existing cadre.
Once the war had begun and it was realised that it would not be short, arrangements were made through the existing organisation to raise other kinds of Landwehr units, particularly for duty behind but close to the operational areas. Additional Landsturm units were also raised for duty in the homelands as well as in the occupied territories.
In the Tirol and Vorarlberg there was in existence another organisation that was invaluable when the Italians entered the war. Following the bravery exhibited by the peoples of these provinces during the Napoleonic Wars, the Emperor had granted them the right to bear arms in perpetuity. This was given practical reality by the creation of the k.k. Schiessstande (literally 'shooting ranges'). These were administered under the guidance of the k.k. Ministerium für Landesverteidigung in Wien by k.k. Landeshauptschiessstande in Innsbruck and Bregenz, with branches at district, main town and village level throughout the two provinces. This organisation was not under military command but received guidance and assistance from the local military commanders. Membership was open to all men over the age of 17, but their full time military service took priority. Boys aged 16 could belong to the Jungschützenschule and joined the Standschützen at the age of 17. Members took an oath 'To defend the Fatherland and be true to the Kaiser' which was kept in the war years to the bitter end. Members attended exercises four times a year and had to fire sixty shots on the range at each of these.
Further reference is made in the following chapters to each of the parts of the Army that have been mentioned in outline above. It is a complex subject. The organisation of the Army of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1914 cannot be equated to the army that the British people went to war with in that year. It bore a resemblance to other European armies of the time but was unique and merits our study and respect.
To close this chapter a word should be written about the Royal guards. There were no Household Troops in Austro-Hungary. Guards at the royal palaces were found by the infantry regiments stationed locally. There were, however, the equivalents of the British Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms and Yeomen of the Guard in close attendance on the Monarch. These were under the command of the Oberster aller Garden, who was the Erste Obersthofmeister Seiner Majestät. They consisted of two officers' Life Guards each led by a senior general officer with four Gardeoberoffiziere, some 40 Gardechargen and some 30 Gardehauspersonale.
There were also four Life Guards manned by non-commissioned officers:
These two were each commanded by a senior general officer, with some 50 non-commissioned officers.
The officers and non-commissioned officers of the Life Guards at c. to f. above were seconded from their regiments to this duty for two or three years. In addition, at Budapest, there was the k.u. Kronwache (M.kir. Korona örség), consisting of a commandant (Stabsoffizier), four officers, some non-commissioned officers and some 40 infantry soldiers with some trumpeters/buglers.
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W. Galicia, Silesia, N. Moravia
Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Triest, Görz, Gradisca
E. Hungary less Transylvania
E. Galicia, Bukowina
|XII Kps Kmdo-Nagyszeben|
Croatia, Slavonia, Fiume
Tirol, Vorarlberg, Upper Austria, Salzburg
Each kuk Militärterritorial(Korps)bezirk was known by its number, thus: III Militärterritorial(Korps)bezirk, Graz. That number was the same as carried by the associated Korps on mobilization, thus: III Korps
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|8||Brünn||8||Brünn||DR6||Przemysl||FJBI7-Judenburg & FJB25-Wien|
|11||Pisek||11||Prag||DR14||Brandeis an der Elbe|
|38||Kecskemét||38||Petrovaradin (Peterwardein)||HR13||Székesfehérvár (Stuhlweiβenburg)|
|40||Rzeszów||40||Rzeszów||FJB4-Braunau am Inn|
|49||StPölten||49||Brünn||FJB10-Vigo di Fassa|
|62||Maros- Vásarhely||62||Kolozsvár (Klausenburg)|
|69||Székesfehérvár (Stuhlweißenburg)||69||Pécs (Fünfkirchen)||HR10||Budapest|
|83||Szombathely (Steinamanger)||83||Komäron (Komorn)||HR11||Lancut|
|84||Wien B||84||Krems||DR11||Brünn||FJB21-Bruck an der Mur|
|86||Szabadka (Maria Thereesiopel)||86||Szabadka||HR8||Kecskemét|
|89||Gródek- Jagiellónski (Gródek)||89||Jaroslau||UR3||Krakau|
|The following three Ergänzungsbezirke provided men for the Tiroler Kaiserjäger|
|The following four Ergänzungsbezirke provided men for the bosnisch-herzegowinische Infanterieregimente|
|The final three Ergänzungsbezirke provided men for the kuk Kriegsmarine|
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All to 46LID
All to 13LID
All except No5 to 22LID; No5 to defence of Pola
All to 26LID
All to 45LID
|No19 Lemberg to 30ID
No20 Stanislau to 43ID
No22 Czernowitz to 43ID
No35 Zloczów to 30ID
The following are Landesschützen
No 21 was raised in Serial 2 area but with the Linz LIR2 to 44LID
LSchRI to 44LID
Lsch RII & LschRIII to 88LSchBrig of Bozen
(not co-located with col c)
Gravosa & Castelnuovo
|No23 Zara to 5GbBrig of 18ID
No37 Gravosa to 4GbBrig of 18ID
|kk LUR||Recruiting area||War Role (all kk LUR were DionsKav as noted)|
|1||E Galicia||XI Kps with 11, 30ID, 43LID|
|2||Przemysl & N Böhmen||IX Kps with 10, 29ID, 26LID|
|3||C Galicia||X Kps with 2, 24ID, 45LID|
|4||Krakau & N Mähren||1 Kps with 5ID, 46LID|
|5||Oö, Nö, Wien, Steirmark, Kärnten, Krain||II Kps with 4, 25ID, 13LID|
|6||S and W Böhmen, Innsbruck, Linz||XIV Kps with 3, 8ID, 44LID|
Note: DionsKav 21LID was DRI4, a Böhmen regiment; DionsKav 22LID was DR5, a S. Steirmark regiment
|kk FKD||Recruiting area||War Role (all kk LUR were DionsKav as noted)|
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|1||I||Budapest||IV||40||No 1 Budapest to 20HID
No 6 Szabadka to 40HID
No 17 Székesfehervár to 20HID
No 19 Pécs to 40HID
No 29Budapest to 40HID
No 30 Budapest to 40HID
|2||II||Szeged||VII||23||No 2 Gyu1a (Békes-Gyula) to 23HID|
No 3 Debreczen to 20HID
No 4 Nagyvárad to 20HID
No 5 Szeged to 23HID
No 7 Versecz to 23HID
No 8 Lugos to 23HID
|3||III||Kassa||VI||39||No 9 Kassa to 39HID|
No 10 Miskolcz to 39HID
No 11 Munkacs to 39HID
No 12 Szatmár-Németi to 41HID
No 16 Beszterczebanya to 39HID
|4||IV||Pozsony||V||37||No 13 Pozsony to 37HID|
No 14 Nyitra to 37HID
No 15 Trencsén to 37HID
No 18 Sopron to 37HID
No 20 Nagykanizsa to 41HID
No31 Veszprem to 4IHID
|5||V||Kolozsvár||XII||38||No 21 Kolozsvár to 38HID|
No 22 Mearos-Vásárhely to 38HID
No 23 Nagyszeben to 38HID
No 24 Brassó to 38HID
No 32 Deés (Besztercze) to 41HID
|6||VI||Zagreb||XIII||42||No 25 Zagreb to 42HID|
No 26 Karlovac to 42HID
No 27 Sisak to 42HID
No 28 Osijek to 42HID
a. Each ku Landwehrdistrikt had associated ku Ergänzungsbezirke which matched the associated kuk Ergänzingsbezirke, but did not have the same title. At the time of printing this, there is no known list of these districts and thus they are not listed here.
b. The ku Landwehrkavallerie and Artillerie for the divisions referred to above were also manned from the districts noted against each division.
c. The commander of each ku Landwehrdistrikte was also the commander of the associated ku Landwehr Infanterie Division. In the case of 23, 37, 38, 39, 40 and 42HID this applied. However for 20HID and 41HID, manned from a variety of sources as can be seen above and with headquarters at Nagyvárad and Budapest respectively, the commander was separate from the district organisation and held no other post. The former divisions were known as 'territorial divisions', and the other two as 'extraterritorial divisions'.
d. It must be noted that the commander of a ku Landwehrdistrikt, and its associated HID, was NOT under the command of the linked kuk Militärterritorial(Korps)bezirk. He answered solely to the ku Landwehroberkommando. Once mobilisation was ordered, however, he and his formation was placed under the operational command of whichever formation was ordained in the plan for war.
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|1 & 39||II|
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|1, 29, & 30||IV|
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Last updated 25 Feb 2002