Chapter 5: Infantry, Cavalry and Artillery

Back to introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to give in some detail the organisation of the three main fighting arms of the Austro-Hungarian army, and to show how they developed during the war. Their deployment throughout the war will be covered in Chapter 6. It must be emphasised once again that the developments that are dealt with in this chapter are not to be taken as the only ones that occurred in the years 1914-18. Many local adjustments happened to organisations, and others were forced upon units as fighting, climate, availability of weapons etc and other factors took a toll of their men and equipment. But the main developments are covered here.


"The Infantry is the main arm. Able to fight at long range or at close quarters, in defence and in attack, the Infantry can use its weapons with success against any enemy, in every type of terrain, by day as well as by night. It decides battles: even without support from other arms and against a numerically superior enemy it is capable of attaining the laurels of victory, if only it has trust in itself and has the will to fight. For unyielding steadfastness combined with physical toughness qualify it to bring any battle, once begun, to a successful conclusion despite all obstacles and losses."
Paragraph 1, Exerzierreglement 1911

This quote, although based on teaching that had no concept of the reality of war in 1914 and later, was certainly correct when the behaviour of the Infantry during the war is considered. Nevertheless, wartime experience showed that, although the foot soldier was the only man who could close with the enemy and hold ground in the face of the new weapons, he needed the closest co-operation of all arms if he was to be used effectively and economically. It was this lesson, coupled with the requirements dictated by the ground over which the fighting took place, that led to most of the changes in organisation during the war. The development of the infantry arm is considered in the following paragraphs and is detailed in Appendix A to this chapter.

Before going on to organisational matters, the titles of the various regiments are of interest. The basic unit of the infantry was the regiment. These were of three types: k.u.k., k.k. and k.u. (M.kir.). The k.u.k. could be IR, KJR or bhIR. K.k. could be LIR (from May 1917, SchR) or LSchR (which became KSchR in May 1917). The k.u. regiments were all M.kir. Honvéd. Note that Landsturm are not considered here. The source from which each of the one hundred and seventy nine regiments of infantry came can be found by referring to Appendices B, C and D to Chapter 3. Every Regiment bore a number, preceded by the letters k.u.k., k.k., or M.kir. In addition each IR, LIR and HIR had a further title that denoted the Colonel of an IR, or the district from which a LIR or HIR was raised. The majority of k.u.k. IR had as their Colonel a member of the imperial dynasty or of a foreign ruling house, or a prominent individual; living or dead. Thus IR 34, raised from Kassa and composed of Magyars and Slovaks was, in full, 'k.u.k. Infanterieregiment Wilhelm 1 Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preussen Nr. 34'; while LIR 21 was 'K.k. Landwehrinfanterieregiment St Polten Nr. 21' and HIR 1 was 'M.kir. Budapest1 1-so Honvéd Gyalog Ezred'.

And now to regimental organisation. In the k.u.k. IR, KJR and bhIR this was based in peace, and until 1917, on a system of fours: see Appendix A to this chapter for the exceptions. An infantry regiment had a headquarters, and four field battalions, numbered 1 to IV, each with four companies numbered 1 to 16 through the regiment. Thus Nr.2 Komp was in the first battalion and Nr.12 Komp was in the third battalion. In each company were four rifle platoons each with four sections. In addition a regiment went to war with four machine gun sections, one for each battalion. As a rule the k.k. LIR and the Honvéd were on a three battalion basis throughout the war. At the start of the war, the three regiments of the Tirolean LSch had, respectively, six, five and five battalions but only four, three, and four machine gun sections. So, at mobilisation, a k.u.k. IR mustered, with four battalions, some 4600 all ranks; armed with rifles, bayonets, pistols and two machine guns to each battalion. A company was some 250 men.

The first change took place in 1915/16 when a section of two 37mm, 1800m range, infantry guns was introduced in each regiment. They were followed by mortars, flamethrowers, and searchlights for battlefield illumination. Then, in 1917, a machine gun company of eight guns was included in each battalion. Meanwhile the number of platoons in a company had been reduced to three, but each company now had two sections each of two light machine guns. Thus the firepower of the infantry had been greatly increased.

While the above changes were being made as equipment became available, it had become apparent that a four battalion regiment was unwieldy. It was decided that each regiment should be of three battalions, a change that was introduced during 1917, but which was not completed until the Spring of 1918. Far it was then that the New Army called for by GO Arz, who had become Chief of the General Staff in July 1917, actually took shape. This reorganisation, which was profound, is reflected in the data set out in Chapter 6. Its effect an the infantry is shown in the right hand column of Appendix A to this chapter. The New Army required some forty more infantry battalions, and these were found from the reduction in battalions in each regiment already noted. At the same time some thirty-one battalions became surplus, their men being absorbed by the new regiments.

The final establishment found all infantry regiments with three battalions (I to III), each of four rifle companies (1-12) of three rifle platoons and a light machine gun platoon of two guns. Within the regiment were four heavy machine gun companies each with eight such guns. There was also a technical company with platoons of pioneers, searchlights, mortars and other special battle equipment, as well as a telephone platoon. To complete the establishment there was an assault company for fighting patrols and infiltration work, and the battle and supply trains. The regiment totalled 3000 men of all ranks. By late Spring of 1918, the infantry other than the Landsturm were on this establishment, although there is little doubt that there were still some units in the Balkans and perhaps the Ukraine that had not received all the weapons and equipment referred to here. The infantry were now very well set up!

The Feldjäger battalions (FJB) were regarded as light infantry, as indeed were the KJR. Appendix B to Chapter 3 shows that their men came mainly from the mountainous areas of the Monarchy. Appendix A to this chapter shows that there were no FJB3, 15 or 26 at the start of the war. This was because they, with others that were reinstated early in 1914, had become battalions of the Tiroler Jäger Regiment in 1890-93. The TJR, which became the KJR on reorganisation in 1895, was descended from a regiment of that name formed in 1801 far the Napoleonic Wars. FJB3, 15 and 26 were raised once again as Feldjäger in early 1915.

In August 1914 all FJB (except Nos 11, 20, 24 and 29) had four field companies each of four platoons, totalling 250 all ranks in each company, and a machine gun section of two guns. There was also a battle and supply train. By August 1918 an FJB still had four companies and the trains, but it also had a technical company with mortar, machine gun, searchlight, pioneer and signal platoons. Throughout it totalled about 1100 all ranks. FJB 11, 20, 24 and 29 had only three field companies at the start of the war, plus the machine gun section, and a cyclist company. This last was Nr.4 Komp and consisted of three platoons with folding bicycles, and a machine gun platoon. It also had two motor lorries, two motor cycles and a first aid detachment on cycles with folding stretchers that could be made into trailers for towing behind the cycles. On mobilisation the four companies of cyclists from these four FJB were grouped together to form a cyclist battalion (RdfBaon) that went to war with 7 KD. As Appendix A shows more battalions of this type were formed, and 5 and 11 HKD eventually had one each. The FJB mobilised as extra battalions in certain infantry brigades. But it is of interest to note that 8 ID included 161 IBrig which was made up of FJB 1, 13, 14, 16 and 18.

The HIR, as already noted were on a three battalion basis, with the exception of HIR 19 which had four battalions, the fourth coming from Fiume. When the original Honvéd infantry battalions were formed into regiments in 1890, each had four, but in 1912 they were reorganised and three became the rule. When war brake out several battalions were under strength and eleven of them had only three companies. At the same time not all of them had their machine gun sections for each battalion. HIR served with the HID and thus when 23 HID was captured at Przemysl in March 1915, the HIR that served in its 45 and 46 HIBrig (HIR2, 5, 7 and 8) disappeared from the Army List, together with the division and brigades, for the remainder of the war, a gap being left in the 1918 Order of Battle for them.

Before leaving infantry organisation it should be pointed out that there were in existence on the Italian front by 1916 various infantry units that are not shown at Appendix A to this chapter, since they were made up of personnel seconded from other units who remained on the establishment of those units. Such extras included the Kaiserjäger and LSch Streifkompagnien (patrol companies), Skikompagnien and Skiabteilungen, and Alpine sections.


The role of Cavalry when the war began was seen as falling into three distinct areas. Firstly, it was expected to conduct reconnaissance - often in depth, to exploit success, to act as a screen in front of the main body of the force and to maintain touch with other forces on the flanks. Secondly, it was required to conduct local scouting missions and to perform outpost duties in conjunction with the infantry. Thirdly, it had to escort senior officers, carry out courier duty and provide mounted guards and orderlies at headquarters.

To carry out these functions the Cavalry of the Austro-Hungarian Army of 1914 was organised in three distinct echelons. First and foremost, the main body of cavalry regiments was formed into brigades, usually two regiments to a brigade, two such brigades to a cavalry division. Secondly, infantry divisions were given two squadrons of cavalry. And thirdly, each army, corps and divisional headquarters had a troop of cavalry provided by one of the cavalry regiments but supernumerary to the establishment of that regiment. Thus the roles set out in the preceding paragraph were met by the KD, DionsKav and Kavstabszüge.

Despite their traditional titles which reflected the dragoons, hussars and uhlans of earlier times, the cavalry arm was in fact mounted infantry and was armed and trained as such. However, in order to be used as infantry, the men had to dismount and then perhaps one in three acted as a horse holder. Thus, with a cavalry regiment only having 1180 all ranks in war (a squadron was 180), most of whom were mounted, the number of men in the firing line was not high. The fact that a horse required fodder daily, which was not easy to provide under field conditions in winter, if it was to remain capable of carrying the weight of the rider and his equipment, made cavalry expensive in terms of supply lines. And the war showed that artillery and machine guns drove men under ground: a field lashed by shot and bullets was no place for horsed cavalry. Thus the days of mounted cavalry in forward areas were numbered, and after the initial phase when open warfare was the order of the day, they were rarely seen in the line. Appendix B to this chapter shows how the cavalry reacted to the conditions of war.

Every cavalry unit was organised on the same lines. The basic unit was the squadron: Eskadron until 1917, when Schwadron was used. A squadron had three or four troops (Züge). Three squadrons formed a division, of which there were two in a regiment. In addition there were battle and supply trains, a pioneer troop, two telegraph sections and two lamp signalling sections (Telgpatrouille and Fernsignalpatrouille) which together formed the signal troop, and of course regimental headquarters. The rtTLandesSchD and rtDSchD, the latter having only two squadrons, formed only one division apiece as their titles show, and had only one telegraph section and no lamp signallers.

The pioneer troops of DR 6, HR 1, 2 and 16, and UR 3 and 7 had the equipment to make pontoon bridges for the cavalry to cross all but major rivers. Every pioneer troop carried light pontoons for the crossing of minor water obstacles.

It is of interest to recall that the cavalry, except for the KavMGAbtlgn, went to war in their parade dress of blue, scarlet and gold. Indeed units that were not in the firing line kept this throughout the war. In 1909 it had been decided to issue a standard, grey field uniform to the cavalry, but this had not been carried out (not accepted by the wearers, perhaps?) by August 1914, other than in the newly formed machine gun units. Grey overalls were issued to certain other units: others covered their helmets with grey cloth or painted them. Those who operated in the infantry role did get full infantry field uniform of course. But it was an odd way to go to war!

Appendix B to this chapter shows the adjustments from mounted cavalry to dismounted in the infantry role. These began in the winter of 1914/15. By May 1915 the first KavFussAbtlgn were formed and took their place, at first with depleted infantry divisions. These led, as Appendix B shows, to the KavSchD and so to the Schützen Esk and the HaR zu Fuss.

Between October 1916 and March 1917 the majority of the cavalry divisions had been reduced to one cavalry brigade and they remained thus for the rest of the war, sometimes having an infantry brigade placed under command.


The Artillery was made up of two branches: Field and Fortress. The role of the Field Artillery, which included mountain artillery, was to support the Army in the field by the application of fire upon the enemy whenever and wherever it was required.

At the start of the war the Field Artillery had a preponderance of field guns with relatively short range and flat trajectory characteristics. Trench and mountain warfare, the latter catered for to a high degree by the mountain sections of the Field branch with special equipment, led to a call for plunging fire which could be directed into trenches, and mountain defences and valleys. This was met by an increase in the number of howitzers and mortars. Howitzers generally afford greater range than mortars but the latter fired heavier shells or bombs. Appendix C to this chapter shows how the Artillery developed to meet the needs of this war, and gives details of battery organisation.

In addition to a number of batteries, each regiment of the Field branch consisted of a headquarters; a signal troop that provided five telephone stations for each battery together with a considerable amount of line and the equipment to lay it; a battle and supply train; and a Munitionkolonne. This latter in an FKR was made up of the DivMunParkKmdo and two MunKol - one for infantry and one for artillery ammunition supply - each of four sections, all equipped with horse-drawn ammunition wagons. A GbAR had no DivMunParkKmdo, but otherwise was similar. In regiments other than FKR and GbAR, there was no DivMunParkKmdo and the MunKol was equipped to supply only its own equipment, and joined the MunPark of whichever formation it was commanded by. Should a regiment or part of a regiment be detached from its parent organisation, an element of its MunKol went with it to work in the MunPark of its new organisation.

Each infantry division had an FABrig that bore the divisional number. In August 1914 such an FABrig normally had - in an ID - one FKR and half a regiment of howitzers: altogether some 30 guns and 12 howitzers. An LID had a k.u.k. FKR as well as a k.k. FKD and a k.k. howitzer division. An HID had a k.u.k. FKR and an HFKR. By the Spring of 1918 the FABrig of every division had two FAR, each with both gun and howitzer batteries, and an sFAR with heavy guns and howitzers. The division thus had some 24 field guns and 36 field howitzers, plus 4 heavy guns and 8 heavy howitzers. In addition it probably had a FlakBt of 4 guns and an MWBt. The increase in equipment delivering plunging fire is obvious.

A note must be interjected here about the numbering of regiments in the FABrigs. At the start of the war, in an ID, this was entirely without relevance to the division's number; except for the half FHR, which bore the number of the corps with which the ID had mobilised. The FABrig of an LID did, however, include the FKD bearing the number of that LID. An HID was like an ID, the FKR and HFKR bearing numbers with no divisional relationship: an HID's FABrig had no howitzers at this time. By about March 1916, the picture had changed and it was usual to find all artillery regiments that belonged to an FABrig bearing the number of that brigade and so of the division of which it was part. This system was in force until the end of the war, and is a useful way of locating an artillery regiment of the Field branch. But, it must be understood that regiments and batteries were sometimes attached to the FABrig of another division, as instanced below.

A GbAR supported troops of the GbBrigs and had 20 mountain guns and 8 mountain howitzers. These were so made that they could be broken down into pack animal loads. Ammunition supply was also on a pack basis when away from routes passable to the wagons. With the entry of Italy into the war in May 1915, the mountain artillery became more important and , by the Spring of 1918, each FABrig had its own GbAAbtlg of 8 guns and 4 howitzers. In addition there were GbAR as Armee unmittelbare each with 24 guns and 12 howitzers. Details are given in Appendix C to this chapter.

In August 1914 each corps, other than the two in a mountain role on the Serbian front, had its own sHbD of eight 15cm howitzers. Events proved that these were best deployed with and under control of divisional FABrigs. By early 1916, the FABrig of the majority of divisions had its own sFAR and a corps had no artillery under its own control. However the concept of corps artillery had not disappeared for it was quite usual to find the artillery of the divisions in a corps grouped for an operation under the control of one of the FABrigs. By so centralising the control of guns, they could cover much of the front with concentrated fire. Thus artillery units did not always live in their own formation area and the mail from them may not always bear their parent formation's Feldpostamt number.

The Fortress branch had two roles. It had to support the Army in the defence of certain areas and places such as the fortresses in Galicia and the forts in the mountains on the Italian border. It had also to assist the Army in the field in the reduction of enemy fortified positions.

Hence it was equipped with both fixed and mobile equipment; Appendix C to this chapter shows only the latter. Its organisation was not the same as the Field branch and is explained in Appendix D. In addition to the batteries and FsArtKomp shown there, every regiment had an observation balloon detachment and a searchlight section, as well as the horse or motor transport demanded by its mobile equipment. As Appendix C reveals the organisation and equipment of the Fortress branch changed considerably as the war progressed.

Since the artillery unit of fire was normally a battery, regimental strengths are not given here. A battery of mountain artillery in August 1914 was some 160 all ranks if equipped with guns and 260 with howitzers. In an FKR a battery was about 180 strong; in an rtAD it was 150; and in an FHD it was 210. Fortress batteries at this time varied from 220 for those equipped with mortars to 300 for those with heavy guns and howitzers. All these figures altered as new equipment came to hand and as establishments altered.


Every unit of the Army had a Depot, normally located in its Ergänzungsbezirk. The Depot was responsible for providing the unit with reinforcements of reservists, rehabilitated casualties and newly trained conscripts. It also maintained records and raised new battalions and the like, which included those called 'Reserve' and 'Ersatz', the latter being used for duties in the communication zones and in the Hinterland.

Reinforcements were sent forward from Depots in Marschkompagnien; in the infantry usually formed into MaBaone. At first these were dispatched monthly, but when it was found that this led to many men being held in rear areas when the units were up to strength, the system was changed and Marsch units were sent up at about three-monthly intervals. In the early months of the war, when losses had been heavy and same units had virtually disappeared from the order of battle, Marsch units were brigaded and put into battle as MaBrig, being given a number or being known by the commander's name. Later in the war it became necessary to improve the training of reinforcements before they could take their place in the forward areas and so training groups (Ausbildung Gruppe) were formed at Korps, and sometimes at Armee level where training in local conditions was given.

Infantry Marschkompagnien were numbered serially from the start of the war, each being given a Roman number. Thus k.u.k. MaKamp II/91 was the second reinforcement company of IR91. Sometimes battalions were so numbered and thus MaBaan II/91 was the second reinforcement battalion of IR91. In the case of the cavalry, MaEsk (or MaSch after June 1917) were used and HaBt for the artillery. Such titles can be seen in the order of battle when a unit fought under that title. As these reinforcement units moved from a Depot forward, the men wrote to their families etc, and these items of mail can be found with both civilian and field postmarks, the latter not relating to the Feldpostamt of the unit which they were to join. The messages in such correspondence often convey the frustrations and discomforts of travelling under wartime conditions.


This chapter has given some idea of the organisation and role of the main fighting arms of the Austro-Hungarian Army. The aim has been to provide sufficient to enable the collector to identify his military mail items in such a way as to make them come alive. Chapter 6 will help to identify and locate individual units.



This Appendix shows the composition of the Infantry at four points during the war. It should be used in conjunction with that part of Chapter 5 which deals with this arm, where more information is given. It should be understood that the detail of unit numbers given here does not match precisely that given in the Appendices to Chapter 6 where all major Infantry units are shown as they appeared and disappeared.

a - Type of unit, abbreviated
b - As in Aug 14; mobilization figures for Jul 14 are slightly different
c - As in early May 1916
d - As in the Spring 1917
e - As in Jun 18

kuk Heer
kukIR102 (408 Baone Nos 1-102104 (464 Baone) Nos 1-104 less 36, plus RIR 2. Note 1.106 (441 Baone) Nos 1-107, less 36138 (414 Baone)
KJR4 (13 Baone): Nos 1-4; KJR2 four Baone, others three4 (18 Baone)4 (16 Baone)4 (12 Baone)
bhIR4 (15 Baone): bhIR4 three Baone, others four4 (18 Baone)5 (20 Baone) Note 2.8 (24 Baone)
FJB29 Baone: Nos 1-32, less 3, 15, 2633 Baone Nos 1-32, and one Komb FJB33 Baone32 Baone Nos 1-32
bhFJB1 Baon8 Baone Nos 1-88 Baone4 Baone Note 2.
bhRBaon1 ReserveBaon   
FsIBaon10 Baon5 Baon  
GrenzJKomp6 Komp Nos 1-66 Komp Note 3.  
GrenzJBaone  6 Baone Nos I-VI Note 3.6 Baone
StBaone   65 Baone Note 4.
StHaBaone   10 HaBaone Note 4.
raised for the duration only:
IR Trachomformatien   2 (8 Baone) Nos 203, 204 Note 5.
Hochgbkomp  15 Komp Note 6.21 Komp
Bergführerkomp  13 Komp/Abtlgn13 Komp Nos 1-13 Note 7.
SWBaone   8 Baone Note 3.
RdfBaone1˝ Baone (cyclist bns)2 Baone2 Baone3 Baone
MGScharfschützenbaone   4 Baone Note 9.
Selbständige MGKomp   17 Komp Note 10.
MGZüge   79 Züge Note 11.
Orientkorps   4 Baone Note 12.
kk Landwehr
LIR37 (113 Baone) Nos 1-37 LIR23- two, LIR4- five, LIR27- four, rest- three Baone37 (113 Baone) Nos 1-3735 (105 Baone) Nos 1-37 less 4 and 27. Note 13.35 (106 Baone) Nos 1-37 less 4 and 27
LSchR3 (16 Baone) Nos 1-111 LSchRI - six, LSchRII & III five Baone3 (13 Baone)3 (12 Baone) Note 13.3 (9 Baone)
HIR32 (97 Baone) Nos 1-32 HIR19 - four, rest - three Baone42 (134 Baone) Nos 1-32, 300-315 less 2, 5, 7, 8, 303, 30444 (127 Baone) + one indep HIBaon Russ. HIR1, 3, 4, 6, 9, 10, 300-316 less 303, 304, 312. HIR311, 316 were Trachombaone (Note 5) with one Baone each. HIR34, 308, 310 each two Baone, rest three43 (125 Baone + one indep HIBaon Russ. HIR1, 3, 4, 6, 9-33, 300-316 less 303, 304, 312. HIR311, 316 (Trachom) each one, rest three Baone
kk LstIR/Baone Note 14.40 (136 Baone) from two - four Baone each IR109 Baone LstIRl, 2, 5, 6, 11, 12, 13, 22, 23, 25-27, 31, 32, 51, 409, 410 were in existence. The remaining Baone indep.97 Baone some in LstIR91 Baone some in LstIR
M.kir.Népf. gy. ezr. Note 1532 (97 Baone) Nos 1-32, No19 - four Baone, rest three92 Baone Népf. gy. ezr. 3, 5, 6, 17, 19, 20, 29 in existence. The remaining Baone indep.51 Baone some in regts41 Baone some in regts
GendBaone 6 ˝Baone2 Gendarmerieformationen with various titles10 Streif (patrol)/Gendarmerieformationen with various titles
LstKüstenschutzbaone /-komp (coast def) 8 ku Baone7 Baone (four öst.,three ung.)35 Komp
Dalmatiner Küstenechut-zabtlgn  12 Abtlgn 
Grenz-wachkomp 4 Komp4 Komp4 Komp
Frw. Formationen
Polenbaone/ legion3 BaonePolenlegion: six IR (18 Baone)  
Frw. Ukrainerregt/ Ukrainische Legion 1 Frw Ukrainerregiment (2 Baone)Ukrainische Legion (1˝ Baone)Ukrainische Legion (1 Baon)
Bukowiner Frw. Korps 2 Baone,one Romanian, one Huzalen  
Tiroler u. Vorarlberger StSch 48 Abtlgn50 Baone/Komp58 Form.
Frw. Sch. Note 16. Karntner Frw. SchR (4 Baone)
oberöst. Frw SchR (2 Baone)
4 Frw. SchBaone -Sa1zburg, N.öst, Krain, Küstenland
5 Siebenbürger Frw. Streifkomp
Frw. Baon Mitrovica
Alpenländische frw. SchR/Baone
8 Baone
10 Südtiroler StSchKomp
9 Baone
Scharfsch. u. Kriegerkps  23
Albanische Legion 9 Baone14 Komp (2 Bt, 6 Ausbildungs- Baone)16 Komp. u. Freischaren (guerrilla gps) (2 Bt, 3 Aus- bildungs- Baone)


1. There were between three and ten battalions in the IR at this time. IR36 was removed from the Army List by order of the Monarch on 27 May 15 for 'cowardice and treason'. IR28 had also been removed on 3 Apr 15, but was reinstated after its XI MaBaon had behaved with conspicuous loyalty on the Italian front with 14 GbBrig. Both were Czech regiments.

2. bhIR5-8 were formed as follows:

I/bh5 = former I/bh1I/bh7 = former III/bh3
II/bh5 =former bhFJB5II/bh7 =former V/bh3
III/bh5 =former III/bh1III/bh7 =former bhFJB7
I/bh6 =former IV/bh2I/bh8 =former III/bh4
II/bh6 =former V/bh2II/bh8 =former V/bh4
III/bh6 =former bhFJB6III/bh8 =former bhFJB8

3. These were frontier control troops raised in Bohemia, and by the end of 1916 the companies had become nominal battalions. They were used in Albania. Numbered 1-6, sometimes I-VI.

4. The role of assault troops (Sturmtruppen) was to undertake fighting patrols and during the opening phases of an offensive to penetrate enemy defences and neutralize his strong points. Unofficial assault units had been formed in 1916 and at the end of 1916 these were recognized and a Sturmkomp was authorized for each division, first appearing in the Jul 17 order of battle on the Russian front where 3 Armee already had in each IR a Jagdkmdo; that was superseded by the Sturmkomp. By Oct 17, 11 Armee had a Sturmbaon as army troops, and formations of 10 Armee had a Sturmbaon. In deutsche 14 Armee - the main attacking force at 12th Isonzo in Oct 17 - 1ID and 50ID each had a Sturmkomp and certain divisions in front reserve had a Sturmbaon. These were formed from the assault platoons of battalions, specially trained,and were used as platoon, company or even battalion fighting patrols and storming or infiltration parties. By Jun 18, each ID, SchD and HID had a Sturmbaon, each independent brigade had a StHaBaon, and each KD had a StRegt, bearing the formation number.

5. IR203 and 204, HIR311 (Croat Bataillon) and 316 were all designated 'Trachom' Battalions. lt seems that they were made up of men who had some degree of eye trouble brought about by snow and ice blindness. The first was formed in Spring 1916, HIR 311, and two others appeared during 1917.

6. The first Hochgbkomp appeared at the end of 1916, eight in number and each made up of men specially trained in the skills of fighting under alpine conditions. They consisted of three platoons of infantry, a MG platoon, a 'technische Schwarm' and two Telephonpatrouillen. The men came from certain IR, from the KJR, bUIR, kkLIR4 and 27, and from the LSchR. Later, four guide sections were added to the establishment. At first these units bore the number of the division or brigade to which they were attached, but they were used with many other formations and their numbers ceased to have any particular relevance. In Oct 18, the following were still active: nos 12-32, all on the Italian front except for Hochgbkomp 23 which was in Albania.

7. The Bergführerkomp/Abtlgn were also introduced in late 1916 when 1200 of the very best alpinists were formed into special units for guiding troops operating in the alpine conditions of the Western sectors of the Italian front. In the main they came from the KJR and LSchR and were not infrequently professional licensed guides. There were at first 12 such groups and later they were expanded to 13, with a total of 95 officers and 1900 men. No organizational details are available but they would have been used in small groups. At the end of the war their units were numbered from 1-13.

8. Sicherungswachbaone were numbered 1-8 and appeared in 1913 in 4 GenKmdo and HGpMackensen (Quartiermeisterabtlg 16) to perform security guard duties in eastern Galicia, the Bukowine and Romania. Very likely made up of specially recruited locals and older men from the eastern marches of the Monarchy, no details exist of their organization.

9. The so-called MG marksmen companies did not appear umtil 1918, on the Italian front, and were then in the western sectors only. They probably operated under Army command, holding critical strongpoints in the front defences to the death, a tactic that was used on the Western front by the Germans most effectively. No details exist af their organization but the order of battle for Jun 13 showed six - not four as in the Table above - numbered 1-6, three being with each of 10 and 11 Armee.

10. The machine gun had became such an important weapon by 1918 that independent MG companies were formed as Army troops, numbered 1-17, and no doubt were used to thicken up the defences where necessary. lt is likely that these units had up to eight MGs.

11. These MG platoons were Korps and Div troops. Their numbering is not known and their armament is also unknown, but it is probable that they had two or four guns of various types, heavy and light, each.

12. The Orientkorps was formed in the Spring 1918 and in the Jun 18 order of battle was shown as HGp Boroević unmittelbare, that is under direct command of that headquarters. lt was due to go to the Middle East but, leaving Fiume in Jul 18, never got further than Albania where it was engaged in the retreat in the closing weeks of the war. lt consisted of four battalions: IV/103, VI/bh1, VI/bh2 and VIII/bh3.

13. On 1 May 17, Kaiser Karl's decree retitling the kk Landwehr as Schützen was published. Not only did LIR become SchR, but LIR4 and 27, which had been trained and operated as mountain infantry, became Gebirgeschützenregiment 1 and 2 (GbSchRl and 2), and the kkLSchR became Kaiserschützenregiment I, II and III (KSchR). The latter were also mountain infantry.

14. The source from which the foregoing Table was taken did not refer to the fact that there were kkLstEtappenbaone as well as LstBaone. Whether some of the latter changed role and became EtBaone while retaining their original number, or there were in existence separate EtBaone, is not known. The following numbers have been recorded, however: kkLstIR1-34, 36-39, 49, 51, 409, 410 and, from the Tirol, I, II and III. They appear to have been organized on a three battalion, three or four company basis. Their length of active service varied. As kkLstIBaone the following have been recorded: nos 5, 6, 8, 10, 17, 18, 20-30, 34-46, 49, 50, 54-56, 59-65, 75-95, 102-104, 112, 116, 148-174, 223, 300, 302, 'Urban', and from the Tirol, I-V. They seem to have been normally on a four company basis. As kkLstEtBaone only the following have been recorded: nos 491, 494 and 518, but there must have been more that did not show in the field army order of battle. There were in addition some bhEtBaone, and the following have been recorded: nos 2, 5, 8, 9, 10 and 11.

15. The order of battle of the field army showed, not necessarily all at the same time, 36 regiments of kuLst. It also showed some 63 kuLstEtBaone. Only four of these bore single numbers: nos 234, 502, 508 and 513. The remainder bore numbers such as IV/1; see the foot of page 3-2, where this form of numbering is commented upon.

16. The Freiwillige Schützen were formed from the rifle clubs of the Empire. On the Italian front they played as important a part as the Standschützen. At the end of the war the following were still on active service: with V Kps in 10 Armee - Kärntner FrwSchR with three Baone, Oberösterreichische, Steirmärkisches and Salzburger FrwSchBaone; and in the Triest area - FrwSchBaone Marburg IV, Laibach VI and Triest VII.



This Appendix shows the composition of the Cavalry at four points during the war. It should be used in conjunction with that part of Chapter 5 which deals with this arm, where more information is given. It should be understood that the detail given here may not match exactly that given in the Appendices to Chapter 6 where all major Cavalry units are shown as they appeared and disappeared.

a - Type of unit, abbreviated
b - As in Aug 14; mobilisation figures for Jul 14 are slightly different
c - As in May 16
d - As at the end of 1916/beginning of 1917
e - As in Jun 18






kuk Heer
DR15 (90 Esk) Nos 1-1515 (70 ˝Esk)15 (70 ˝Reiter, 28 Schützen Esk)26 HaR zu Fuss
6 Schwd and 4 Züge as DionsKav
8 KavMGAbtlgn
Note 1.
15 KavMGAbtlgn15 KavMGAbtlgn
Note 2.
2 selbstgMG Schwd.
Note 3.
HR16 (96 Esk)
Nos 1-16
16 (81 Esk)16 (80 Reiter, 24 Schützen Esk)26 HaR zu Fuss
20 Schwd as DionsKav
4 KavMGAbtlgn13 KavMGAbtlgn16 KavMGAbtlgn3 selbstgMG Schwd
UR11 (66 Esk) Nos 1-8, 11-1311 (48 Esk)11 (47 Reiter, 24 Schützen Esk)22 HaR zu Fuss
6 KavMGAbtlgn10 KavMGAbtlgn11 KavMGAbtlgn2 Schwd as DionsKav

kk Landwehr

Note 4.
6 (36 Esk) Nos 1-66 (37 ˝Esk)
1 KavMGAbtlg
6 (37 ˝Esk)8 HaR zu Fuss
14 Schwd and 1 Zug as DionsKav
Note 5.
1 (3 Esk)1 KavMGAbtlg
1 (4 Esk)
5 Reiter, 3 Schützen Esk
2 KavMG Abtlgn
1 HaR zu Fuss
6 Schwd as DioneKav
2 Schwd and 2 Züge as Dions Kav
Note 6.
1 (2 Esk)1 (2 Esk)
HHR10 (60 Esk) Nos 1-10
9 KavMGAbtlgn
10 (47 Esk)
9 KavMGAbtlgn
10 (44 Reiter, 18 Schützen Esk)16 HaR zu Fuss
12 Schwd as DionsKav
1 selbstgMG Schwd
Note 7
 1 (2 Esk)1 (2 Reiter Esk) 
Landsturm (Note 8).
M.kir. népf. hsz. e.
Note 9
1 (4 Esk) No 12 (8 Esk)1 (3 Reiter, 2 Schützen Esk)
1 KavMGAbtlgn
1 (2 Reiter Schwd)
2 HaR zu Fuss
M.kir. népf. hsz. e.
Note 10
10 (?30 Esk) Nos 1-1010 (17 1/4 Esk)8 (18 3/4 Esk) 
Note 11.
 11 (31 Esk)  
Note 12.


1. The 18 KavMGAbtlgn shown in column b had been raised in 1913 in the following regiments and were divisional troops in the KD, most having two such units: DR1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, 12 and 15; HR1, 5, 9, 10, 12 and 14; and UR1, 3, 6 and 8. Each KavMGAbtlg had two platoons each with two MG, the total strength being 80 men, all mounted.

2. By the end of 1916 each cavalry regiment had a proportion of its squadrons dismounted and operating in reality as infantry.

3. The HaR zu Fuss were formed from the Schützen Esk in about Jun 17 and were the former divisions of each cavalry regiment, made up of three squadrons. They became in effect infantry battalions in all but name and strength, grouped under their parent regimental headquarters, within cavalry brigades under cavalry divisional command. By early 1918, cavalry divisions of this type were taking over sections of the Italian front from the infantry, but clearly could not accept responsibility for the same length of front as an ID. The KavMGAbtlgn had by now been assimilated in the HaR zu Fuss as MGSchwd, but it will be seen that some independent MG platoons were provided by the cavalry. The divisional cavalry remained mounted throughout the war and are shown here as such.

4. The kk Landwehrulanenregimenter became reitende Schützenregimenter (rtSchR) in May 17 when the rest of the kk Landwehr was retitled by imperial decree.

5. The kk Reitende Tiroler Landesschützendivision (rtTLandesSchD) were the cavalry arm of the Landesschützen. In May 17 they became reitende Kaiserschützen (rtKSchD). Their mounts were very strong Mountain ponies. (Haflingers?)

6. The kk Reitende Dalmatiner Landesschützendivision (rtDLandesSchD or rtDchD) were formed to provide mounted elements for the mountain brigades raised in Bosnia, Herzegovina and Dalmatia. Their mounts were of a special breed, famous for their hardiness and smaller even than the ponies used by the rtTLandesSchD.

7. The HHD referred to was formed in about Sep 15 as DionsKav for 70HID which had been raised at that time from the Siebenburgen Gendarmerie Division. It took the number 70 from its parent formation and thus was HHD70. It does not appear in the order of battle after early 1917.

8. The kk Landsturm did not raise any cavalry.

9. The ku Landsturm Husarenregiment shown here was not with the army in the field until probably Oct 14, when a second such regiment had been formed and the two were brigaded in the ku Lst Hus Brig No1. As can be seen, one - the 2nd regiment - formed HaR zu Fuss whilst the 1st remained mounted, finishing the war with 19KBrig in eastern Bosnia. The 2nd with its half regiments on foot operating split up was also in the Balkans, in Serbia and Montenegro, at the end of the war. Their depot is not known.

10. The ku Landsturmhusarendivisionen (Magyar Királyi népfölkelö huszár osztályok), ten in number, were raised from the same area as the parallel ku Landwehr husarenregimenter (Magyar Királyi honvéd huszárezredek [HHR]) (see page 3-3) : HHR1 - Budapest; 2 - Debreczen; 3 - Szeged; 4 - Kecskemét; 5 - Kassa; 6 - Waitzen (Vécs); 7 - Papa; 8 - Pécs; 9 - Maros-Vasarhely; 10 - Varasdin

11. The Kavellerieschützendivisionen (KavSchD) appeared in each KD by May 15 and lasted until about July 16. They were dismounted cavalry in an infantry role, originally three or four squadrons to each KD, formed from the cavalry regiments of that KD. By mid 1916 they became Schützen Esk within the cavalry regiments, see Note 3 above.

12. See Note 4 to Appendix A to this chapter for the history of Assault troops. By Jun 18 each KD, of which there were now twelve, had a StHaR that bore the divisional number. Thus 1KD had StHaR1.



This Appendix shows the composition of the Artillery at four points during the war, and also gives the planned final expansion of this arm. It should be used in conjunction with that part of Chapter 5 which deals with Artillery, where more information is given. It should be understood that the detail of unit numbers given here does not match precisely that given in the Appendices to Chapter 6 where the major Artillery units are shown as they appeared and disappeared.


Type of unit, abbreviated As in Aug 1914; mobilisation figures are slightly different As in early May 1916 As in the Spring 1917 As in the Spring 1918 As it would have been if the planned expansion had been completed
kuk FKR42 (222 Bt)
Note 1.
40 (194 Bt) Notes 2, 3.42, 12, 11 resp:
258 FKn,
57 Flak,
26 MW Bt
Notes 8, 9.
kk FKD8 (16 Bt)
Note 4.
kk FKR 8 (31 Bt)
Notes 3, 5.
ku HFKR8 (31 Bt)
Note 6.
9 (36 Bt)
Notes 3,7.
FKnBt Poln Legion 4 Bt of six Kn each   
kuk FHR14(54 Bt)
Note 10.
39 (8 Kn, 138 Hb Bt)
Notes 11, 12
41, 12, 11 resp:
330 FHbBt
Note 15
kk FHD8 (16 Bt)
Note 4
kk FHR 8 (3 Kn, 28 Hb Bt)
Notes 12,13
ku HFHR 9 (14Kn, 18 Hb Bt)
Notes 12,14.
FHbBt Poln Legion 2 Bt of four Hb each   
Note 16.
   132 (264 FKn 396 FHb, 53 Flak, 66 MW Bt)As Column e, but 66 Flak Bt
kuk sHbD
Note 17.
14 (28 Hb Bt 15cm)    
kuk sFAR
Note 18.
 32 (59 Hb 15cm, 27 Kn Bt 10.4cm)32, 11, 10 resp:
126 Hb 15cm, 48 Kn Bt 10 .4cm
Note 19
kk sFAR
Note 18.
 8 (11 Hb 15cm, 3 Kn Bt 10.4cm)  
ku HsFAR
Note 18.
 8 (11 Hb 15cm, one Kn 10.4cm)  
sFAR   66 (76 Kn 10.4cm, 158 Hb Bt 15cm, and 45 Bt var. cal. old equipments)
Note 20.
66 (76 Kn 10.4cm, 380 Hb Bt 15cm)
Note 20.
kuk rtAD
Note 21
9 (27 Bt)9 (32 Bt)
Note 22.
9 (31 Bt)  
ku rtHAD
Note 21.
1 (3 Bt)2 (6 Bt) Note 222 (6 Bt)  
Note 23
   12 (24 FKn, 33 FHb Bt)12 (24 FKn, 48 FHb Bt)
s'K' FAR
Note 23.
    12 (12 Kn 10.4cm, 14 Hb Bt 15cm)
kuk GbAR
Note 24.
10 (50 GbKn, 22 GbHb Bt)
Note 24.
28 (108 GbKn, 34 GbHb Bt)
Note 25.
32, 4, 10 resp:
137 GbKn, 57 GbHb Bt
Note 26.
kk GbAR    
ku HGbAD    
GbAR   14 (86 GbKn, 37 GbHb Rt)
Note 27.
14 (84 GbKn, 42 GbHb Bt)
GbAAbtlgn   66 (134 GbKn, 55 GbHb Rt)
Note 28.
66 (132 GbKn, 66 GbHb Bt)
Dalmatiner GbKnDion1 (2 GbKnBt)    
The following were improvised units
Lst FKR3 (12 Bt)
Note 29.
Mobile PositionsBt
Note 29
 22 Bt   
Mobile PositionZüge
Note 29
 25 Züge   
Mobile KnBt
Note 30
 4 Bt   
7cm Landungs-geschützBt
Note 31
 3 Bt   
Luftfahrzeug-AbwehrKnBt Note 32 7 Bt   
Luftfahrzeug-AbwehrKnZüge Note 32 23 Züge   
Summary of Field and Mountain Artillery ['new' as used here means new since Aug 1914; headings repeated from above.]
Type of unit, abbreviated As in Aug 1914; mobilisation figures are slightly different As in early May 1916 As in the Spring 1917 As in the Spring 1918 As it would have been if the planned expansion had been completed
FKnBt299 (1734 Kn)328 (1792 Kn)289 (1716 Kn)288 (1728 Kn incl 18 new)288 (1728 Kn)
FHbBt70 (420 Hb)186 (1032 Kn incl 716 new)336 (1898 Hb incl 1882 new)429 (2574 Hb all new)444 (2664 Hb)
GbKnBt52 (208 GbKn)108 (432 GbKn incl 400 new)137 (692 GbK all new)220 (880 GbKn) 216 (864 GbKn)
GbHbBt22 (88 GbHb)34 (136 GbHb)57 (288 GbHb incl 144 new)92(368 GbHb all new) 108 (432 GbHb)
sHbBt28 (112 Hb)    
10.4cm KnB1 31 (62 Kn all new)48 (146 Kn all new)76 (272 Kn)76 (304 Kn)
15cm HbBt 81 (324 Hb incl 180 new)126 (420 Hb incl 288 new)158 (610 Hb incl 588 new)380 (1520 Hb)
improvisierte Bt/Züge12 Bt (48 Kn)36 Bt/48 Züge (240 Kn)   
verschiedene Bt   45 (270 various calibre old type) 
FlakBt  57 (202 FlakKn)53 (214 FlakKn)66 (396 FlakKn)
MWBt  26 66 66
TOTALS483 Bt (2610 Kn/Hb)804 Bt / 48 Züge (4018 Kn/Hb incl 1358 new)1050 Bt (5362 Kn/Hb incl 3152 new)
66 MWBt
1351 Bt (6916 Kn/Hb incl 4700 new)
66 MWBt
1578 Rt (7908 Kn/Hb)
66 MWBt


The types of unit, abbreviated, were:
FsAR: Aug 14- 6; May 16- 6; Spring 17- 7
FsABaon: Aug 14- 10; May 16- 10; Spring 17- 10
sAR( mobile): Spring 18- 11; Final -11
KüstenAR (mobile) Final only - 3

See Appendix D for the detailed organisation of FsAR and FsABaone in Aug 14. The term 'russ' indicates equipments that had been ordered from Austro-Hungarian manufacturers before the war but which were taken into use on completion by the Austrians. Others, not shown here, were ordered by the Chinese and Turkish authorities. FsAR were numbered 1-6; later 1-7. FsABaone were Nos 1-10. The equipments were designed for use in static defences but some were fixed and some were mobile. The latter are shown here. sAR Nos 1-11 had no standard organisation. They were Army troops and their batteries were positioned according to tactical needs, normally being under corps command.

The total numbers of Baone and equipments at the various periods are as follows.


Scheinwerferkompagnien89searchlight companies
Artilleriezeugskompagnien, Festungszeugskompagnien mit Reparaturparks und Arbeiterkompagnien23artillery and fortress materiel companies with repair parks and labour companies
Landsturmartilleriekompagnien27landsturm artillery companies working with artillery units to give assistance of all kinds: often in LstArtAbtlgn
Munitionsverladekompagnien166artillery ammunition loading companies
AOK-unmittelbare Munitionsstaffel12general headquarters conttrolled artillery ammunition control staff cells
Einrichtungen zur Erzeugung von flüssiger Luft und Preßluft11facilities for the production of liquid (? gases) and compressed air
Artillerie-Retablierungsstationen und Artillerie-Ausrüstungsstationen artillery reorganization and reequipping stations
Waffendepote, Munitionedepote und Fassungsstellen artillery equipment depots, ammunition depots and supply points


1. Kuk FKR Nos 1-42. Nos 2, 4, 7, 23, 26, 28, 32 and 40 had each four batteries. The remainder had five batteries. Nos 6, 11, 13, 16, 18, 19, 22, 27, 29-36, 38, 39, 41 and 42 each had one Reserve battery in addition. All batteries had six guns.

2. By Mar 16, kuk FKR generally bore the number of the FA Brig in which they served: see Chapter 5. The total of 40 FKR here includes 12 RFKR.

3. The 261 batteries shown for FKR, FKD and HFKR in early May 16 include 211 with six guns and 50 with four guns.

4. Kk FKD and FHD Nos 13, 21, 22, 26, 43, 44, 45 and 46 (ie the same number as that borne by the LID and its FABrig in which they served). Each FKD had two batteries each of six guns. Each FHD had two batteries each of six howitzers.

5. By May 16 the kk FKD had become kk FKR, with a total of 31 batteries. See Note 3.

6. Ku HFKR Nos 1-8. HFKR2 had three batteries, the remainder having four each. Each battery had six guns.

7. By Mar 16, HFKR generally bore the number of the FABrig in which they served. Each had four batteries; but see Note 3. The total of 9 HFKR here includes one HRFKR.

8. The FKnBt normally had six guns; the FlakBt normally had four guns; each MWBt was scaled for sixteen MW, but this was liable to variation.

9. The 258 FKnBt shown here include nine batteries with four guns each; the 57 FlakBt shown here include thirteen batteries with only two guns apiece.

10. Kuk FHR Nos 1-14, each of four batteries; FHRI4 had only two HbBt, the others being GbHbBt, and these are counted in this Appendix against the GbAR. On mobilisation each FHR formed two independent divisions each of two batteries, except for FHRI4 which only formed one, ie I Dion FHR 14. In general they mobilised with the corps whose number they bore: thus FHR5 was with V Korps, I Dion FHR5 being with 14ID and II Dion FHR5 with 33ID. All batteries had six field howitzers.

11. By Mar 16, kuk FHR generally bore the number of the FA Brig in which they served; see Chapter 5. The total of 39 FHR shown here includes 11 RFHR.

12. The 184 FHbBt shown here for kuk and kk FHR, and for HFHR, includes 144 with six howitzers each and 40 with four howitzers each.

13. By May 16, the kk FHD had become kk FHR, with a total of 3 FKn and 28 FHbBt; see Note 12.

14. Ku HFHR bore the number of the FABrig in which they served. See Note 12.

15. The 330 FHbBt shown include 59 with four howitzers each, the remainder having six howitzers apiece.

16. During the Spring 1918 the FKR and FHR of all types were reorganised and reformed as FAR, each normally of two FKnBt and three FHbBt, each of six guns/howitzers. In addition certain FAR had a FlakBt of four guns and certain FAR had an MWBt. Each infantry division's FABrig had two FAR. The first bore the divisional number, the other the divisional number plus one hundred. But in a division with a number that was one hundred or higher, the first FAR bore the division's number plus one hundred and the second FAR bore that number plus one hundred. For example, in 1ID the FAR were 1 and 101, and in 106LstID the FAR were 206 and 306.

17. Kuk sHbD Nos 1-14, each of two HbBt each of four 15cm howitzers. They mobilised with the corps whose number they bore. Thus sHbD8 was with VIII Korps.

18. By Spring 1916 the FABrig of most infantry divisions had a sFAR that bore the number of the FABrig, that is the divisional number. Each sFAR/HsFAR had two 10.4cm KnBt, with two guns, and four 15cm HbBt, each with four howitzers. Of the 32 kuk sEAR shown for early May 16, two were sRFAR.

19. Of these 53 sFAR, seven had only one or two batteries. Of the 126 HbBt, seven had two howitzers instead of four, and of the 48 KnBt, twenty three had two guns instead of four. An sFAR normally had four batteries.

20. Of the 76 KnBt, sixteen had only two guns instead of four and of the 158 HbBt, eleven had only two howitzers instead of four. Each of these sEAR bore the number of the FABrig with which it served, that is the divisional number. The number of batteries to each regiment in Spring 1918 was meant to be four but the planned figure was seven (?) and some sFAR had extra batteries at this time.

21. Kuk rtAD Nos 1, 2 4-7, 9-10 and rtHAD1. Each had three batteries, each of four guns. They served with the cavalry divisions.

22. By May 16 five of the rtAD each had four batteries: the other four still had three. Each of the rtHAD had three batteries. All batteries had four guns.

23. In the Spring 1918 each cavalry division had a KFABrig which had a FAR K: both bore the divisional number. Thus IKD had 1KFABrig and FAR1K. In addition a sFAR K was planned; 9KFABrig had received sFAR9K by 15 Jun 18. Each FAR K had two FKnBt of six guns and was to have four FHbBt of six howitzers: in fact only 33 of these batteries were available by the Spring 1918 and so some regiments were short. The sEAR K were to have had one battery of 10.4cm Kn and at least one of 15cm Hb.

24. Kuk GbAR Nos 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 10-14. All had two GbHbBt. Nos 3, 8 and 14 had six GbKnBt: Nos 6, 11, 12 and 13 had five Gb KnBt: Nos 4, 7 and 10 had four GbKnBt. (See Note 10: II Dion FHRI4 provided two GbHbBt which mobilised with 3FABrig) All GbKn and GbHbBt had four mountain guns/howitzers of special design that could be broken down into pack animal transport loads.

25. Kuk GbAR Nos 1-28. Including GbAR 15-28 newly raised with anything from one to six batteries apiece.

26. The new kuk GbAR shown here had, at first, between two and five batteries: the ku HGbADion had, at first, one or two batteries.

27. The GbAR were now Army troops, Nos 1-14. They were planned to have six GbKnBt and three GbHbBt each, each with four guns/howitzers.

28. There was one GbAAbtlg with each infantry division's FABrig, bearing the number of that division. Each GbAAbtlg was planned to have two GbKnBt and one GbHbBt, each with four guns/howitzers.

29. Each battery had four old pattern 9cm guns. Each Züge had two such guns. These guns were suitable only for fixed defences, although they could be moved; hence the title 'Mobile Positionsbatterien/Züge'

30. Each battery had four 8cm guns of various patterns.

31. Each battery had four 7cm guns in the coast defence (ie anti-landing) role.

32. These were early anti-aircraft batteries/troops each with four/two guns of various patterns.



This Appendix gives in some detail the organisation of the Fortress Artillery Regiments and Battalions as they were in Aug 14. In the next chapter their deployment is explained. An FsAR was made up of a number of field battalions numbered I, II, III etc. Plans were in existence for Reserve and Marsch battalions in time of war. These also were to bear roman numbers. Thus IIR/FsAR4 was the second reserve battalion of FsAR4. In addition to the battalions of the fortress artillery regiments, there were also independent FsABaone, and these were numbered 1-10. Both the battalions of FsAR and the FsABaone consisted of a number of FsArtKomp. These were numbered through a FsABaone, 1-4, the Reserve and MarschKompagnien bearing the same numbers suffixed by the letters R or Ma. The companies of an FsAR followed the same pattern as those in an infantry regiment, starting with nos 1-4 in the first battalion and continuing in that sequence through each battalion: thus FsArtKomp 13 was the first company of the IVth battalion.

However the title FsArtKomp was only used when the company was manning artillery equipments which were part of the fixed defences of a fortress or other defended locality. When the company was equipped with mobile equipments it was called a battery and took as part of its title the type of equipment it handled. Thus FsArt Komp 1 of FsAR1 was equipped, as the table below shows, with 30.5 cm mortars, drawn by motor lorries. It was called No ? 30.5cm Auto MSBt. The numbering of all batteries is not known for they were numbered in the order that they received their equipments. Those that are known are shown in the following table. It can be assumed that there were Nos 1-12 30.5cm, and 24cm MsBt; Nos 1-32 15cm HbBt; and Nos 1-20 12cm KnBt in Aug 14.

The columns in the table are as follows:
a - The FsAR No, battalion no and company no; or the FsABaon No and company no.
b - The role or composition of each company.
c - Notes, including in brackets the recruiting area (ie corps area) and depot and HQ station

The FsAR No, battalion no and company no; or the FsABaon No and company no The role or composition of each company. Notes, including in brackets the recruiting area (ie corps area) and depot and HQ station
FsARI-I-1 Komp30.5cm Auto MsBt(II Kps, Wien)
2 Komp30.5cm Auto MsBt?No2 30.5cm Auto MsBt
3 Komp15cm HbBt 
4 Komp15cm HbBt?No2 15cm HbBt
II-5 Komp24cm Auto MsBt 
6 Komp12cm KnBt 
7 Komp15cm HbBt 
8 Komp15cm HbBt 
III-9 Komp24cm Auto MsBt 
10 Komp12cm KnBt 
11 Komp15cm HbBt 
12 Komp15cm HbBt 
IV-13 Komp24cm Auto MsBt 
14 Komp15cm HbBt 
15 Komp15cm HbBt 
16 Komp15cm HbBt 
IMa-FsArtMaKomp Nos 1-4 
FsAR2-I-1 Komp30.5cm Auto MsBt(1 Kps, Krakau)
2 Komp30.5cm Auto MsBt 
3 Komp15cm HbBt 
4 Komp15cm HbBt?No11 15cm HbBt
FsAR2-II-5 Komp30.5cm Auto MsBtNo3 30.5cm Auto MsBt (1 Kps
6 Komp30.5cm Auto MsBtNo4 30.5cm Auto MsBt Krakau)
7 Komp15cm HbBt 
8 Komp15cm HbBt 
III-9 Komp24cm Auto MsBt 
10 Komp15cm HbBtNo25 15cm HbBt
11 Komp15cm HbBtNo26 15cm HbBt
12 Komp15cm HbBtNo27 15cm HbBt
IV-13 Komp12cm KnBt 
14 Komp12cm KnBt 
15 Komp12cm KnBt 
16 Komp12cm KnBt 
IMa-FsArtMaKomp Nos 1-4 
IIMa-FsArtMaKomp Nos 5-8 
FsAR3- 1-1 Komp24cm Auto MsBt(IX and XI Kps, Przemysl)
2 Komp15cm HbBt 
3 Komp15cm HbBt 
4 Komp15cm HbBt 
II-5 Komp30.5cm Auto MsBt 
6 Komp30.5cm Auto MsBt 
7 Komp15cm HbBt 
8 Komp15cm HbBt 
III-9 Komp24cm Auto MsBt 
10 Komp24cm Auto MsBt 
11 Komp15cm HbBt 
12 Komp15cm HbBt 
IV-13 Komp12cm KnBt 
14 Komp12cm KnBt 
15 Komp12cm KnBt 
16 Komp12cm KnRt 
FsAR4- I-FsArtKomp Nos 1-4(III Kps Pola)
II-FsArtKomp Nos 5-8 
III-FsArtKomp Nos 9-12 
IR- FsArtRKomp Nos 1-4 
IIR- FsArtRKomp Nos 5-8 
IIIR- FsArtRKomp Nos 9-12 
IMa-FsArtMaKomp Nos 1-4 
IIMa-FsArtMaKomp Nos 5-8 
IIIMa-FsArtMaKomo Nos 9-12 
FsAR5-As for FsAR4 except that IIIR and IIIMa each have only two companies, Nos 9 &10(III Kps, Cattaro)
FsAR6- I-1 Komp15cm HbBt(V Kps, Komaron)
2 Komp12cm KnBt 
3 Komp24cm Auto MsBt 
4 Komp15cm HbBt 
11-5 Komp24cm MsBt (not Auto) 
6 Komp15cm HbBt 
7 Komp24cm MsBt (not Auto) 
8 Komp15cm HbBt 
III-9 Komp15cm HbBt 
10 Komp12cm KnBt 
11 Komp15cm HbBt 
12 Komp15cm HbBt 
IMa-FsArtMaKomp Nos 1-4 
IIMa-FsArtMaKomp Nos 5,6 
FsABaon1-FsArtKomp Nos 1-4(XIV Kps, Trient)
FsArtRKomp Nos 1-4
FsArtMaKomp Nos 1-4
FsABaon2-As for FsABaon1(VII Kps, Gyulafeherver)
FsABaon3-As for FsABaon1(V Kps, Peterwardein)
FsABaon4-As for FsABaon1(XIV Kps unknown)
FsABaon5-30.5cm Auto MsBt(XIV Kps unknown)
30.5cm Auto MsBt 
15cm HbBt 
15cm HbBt 
FsArtRKomp Nos 1-4 
FsArtMaKomp Nos 1-4 
FsABaon6-FsArtKomp Nos 1-4(XIV Kps unknown)
FsABaon7-FsArtKomp Nos 1-4(XIV Kps, unknown)
FsABaon8-30.5cm Auto MsBtNo7 30.5cm Auto MsBt (XIV Kps
30.5cm Auto MsBtNo8 30.5cm Auto MsBt (unknown
15cm HbBt 
15cm HbBt 
FsABaon9-12cm KnBt(I Kps, unknown)
12cm KnBt
12cm KnBt
12cm KnBt
FsABaon10-24cm MsBt (not Auto)(III Kps unknown)
24cm Auto MsBt
12cm KnBt
12cm KnBt

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Last updated 25 Feb 2002